The intestine microbe B. longum may improve the human immune response and Help prevent gut disorders. Early evidence suggests it may also suppress allergies, reduce cholesterol, and improve skin health. Learn more here.
What is Bifidobacterium longum?
Bifidobacterium longum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped species of bacteria naturally present in the human GI tract. It is subspecies B. longum subsp. Infantis is among the first bacteria to colonize the infant’s gut. B. longum is frequently added to food items as a probiotic with different health benefits.
Previously considered different species, B. infantis and B. suis were demonstrated to be subspecies of B. longum.
Potential Benefits of B. longum
B. longum Probiotic supplements have not been approved by the FDA for clinical use. Supplements generally lack strong clinical research. Regulations set manufacturing criteria for them but do not guarantee that they are effective or safe. Speak with your doctor before supplementing.
B. longum ssp. Infantis triggered the anti-poliovirus reaction in a small study of 20 babies.
B. longum ssp. Infantis encouraged the immune reaction in human volunteers.
B. longum additionally stimulated immune function in 45 older, hospitalized patients who received an influenza vaccine.
B. longum ssp. Infantis had a strong immunomodulatory effect in blood drawn from older patients, compared with other renowned commercial strains.
B. longum supplementation reduced the incidence of influenza and fever at 27 elderly subjects who received an influenza vaccine.
B. longum fed infants showed a trend toward fewer respiratory tract infections.
B. longum protected mice from pneumonia-induced death by finely tuning the inflammatory response and speeding up lung recovery.
B. longum Improved symptoms reduce mortality and suppress inflammation in the lower respiratory tract in mice infected with influenza.
B. longum ssp. Infantis inhibited rotavirus infection in mice.
Oral administration of B. longum protects mice against gut-derived sepsis brought on by P. aeruginosa.
B. longum improves survival in mice infected with Salmonella Typhimurium.
B. longum ssp. Infantis protects against Salmonella associated injury in mice via a Treg-dependent mechanism.
B. longum inhibits the growth of C. Albicans and other pathogenic bacteria.
2) Celiac Disease
B. longum ssp. Infantis reduced gastrointestinal disorders in untreated Celiac disease (CD) patients.
B. longum improved gut microbiota composition and immune parameters in children with newly diagnosed CD.
Oral administration of B. longum ameliorated gliadin (gluten)-mediated perturbations in liver iron deposition and mobilization in rats with CD.
B. longum Attenuated the production of inflammatory cytokines and the CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and protects newborn rats from gliadin (gluten)-induced enteropathy.
3) Gut Health
Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains have been suggested to be associated with severe and persistent diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. B. longum significantly diminished ETBF in people.
B. longum modulated the intestinal environment and appeared to improve the general health care of older patients receiving enteral feeding.
B. longum maintained high Lactobacilli amounts in mice.
B. longum ssp. infantis modulated the gut microbiota and reduces endotoxins in rats.
B. longum ssp. Infantis increased propionic, succinic acid, and butyric acid in rats.
Authorities of B. longum ssp. Infantis significantly reduced the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and related inflammation in rats.
B. longum improved colitis in mice.
B. longum ssp. Infantis ameliorated Infection in rats and mice by decreasing Th1 and Th17 answers.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
B. longum ssp. Infantis diminished intestinal inflammation and has been proven to effectively treat individual and worldwide IBS symptoms without negative events.
B. longum ssp. Infantis enhanced abdominal pain/distress, bloating/distention, and bowel movement difficulty in patients using IBS.
B. longum ssp. Infantis relieved a number of the symptoms of IBS in a clinical trial involving girls.
B. longum ameliorated ulcerative colitis symptoms in Japanese patients.
B. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis ameliorated ulcerative colitis in mice.
B. longum reduced visceral hypersensitivity in mice with IBS.
B. longum ssp. Infantis considerably reduced visceral pain threshold pressure of the initial pain behavior and complete number of pain behaviors in rats.
Insufficient Evidence For
Researchers are currently investigating whether B. longum has Other health advantages. The potential advantages in this segment have produced positive results in at least one clinical trial, however, these studies are modest, contradictory, or otherwise limited. Speak to your physician before supplementing with B. longum for any reason.
B. longum reduced inflammation and improved symptoms in patients with ulcerative colitis.
B. longum significantly relieved inflammation in mice with gout.
B. longum ssp. Infantis suppressed proinflammatory IL-17 cytokine production and might be helpful in the treatment of Th17-related diseases.
Intake of yogurt or powder supplemented with B. longum relieved subjective symptoms and affected blood markers of allergy in people with Japanese cedar pollinosis. Nasal symptoms like itching, rhinorrhea, and congestion as well as throat symptoms tended to be alleviated with this probiotic.
B. longum attenuated allergic airway inflammation and food allergy symptoms in mice.
Oral administration of B. longum suppressed IgE levels and improved the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio. It also increased Th1 cytokine and diminished Th2 cytokine production in mice.
B. longum balanced the Th1/Th2 answer and relieved β-lactoglobulin allergic inflammation in mice.
Neonatal mother-to-offspring colonization with B. longum reduces allergic responses in mice.
B. longum reduced total cholesterol, particularly among subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia.
B. longum Supplementation significantly reduced total cholesterol, liver lipid deposition, and adipocyte size and positively affected liver and kidney function in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented by B. longum had considerably lower triglycerides, LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and MDA.
7) Skin Health
B. longum infusion, when applied to the skin, managed to enhance inflammation parameters, reduce skin sensitivity, Increase skin resistance against chemical and physical aggression, and decrease skin dryness in volunteers with sensitive skin.
B. longum exerted photoprotective effects on the epidermis in mice.
8) Liver Health
B. longum and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) significantly reduced AST, CRP, HOMA-IR, blood endotoxin and steatosis in patients using non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
B. longum And FOS enhanced biochemical parameters and neuropsychological evaluations in cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE).
9) Hemodialysis Complications
Oral administration of B. longum diminished serum phosphate levels in 15 patients receiving hemodialysis (HD).
The administration of B. longum decreased serum concentrations of indoxyl sulfate and P-cresol in a small analysis of HD patients.
Additionally, Bifidobacteria produce vitamin B12 and folate, which may normalize serum homocysteine degrees in HD patients.
Animal Research (Lacking Evidence)
No clinical evidence supports using B. longum For some of the requirements listed within this part. Below is a summary of the existing creature and cell-based research, which ought to guide additional investigational efforts. However, the studies listed below shouldn’t be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.
10) Metabolic Syndrome
B. longum improved metabolic parameters in rats on a high-fat diet. This probiotic also decreased metabolic endotoxin concentrations and intestinal inflammation.
11) Cognitive Function
B. longum fed mice shown improved learning and memory.
B. longum normalized anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mice with infectious diseases.
Depression can be reversed in rats by administering B. infantis.
Chronic administration of B. infantis protected rats from depressive symptoms brought on by anxiety triggered by maternal separation.
Daily administration of B. longum Reduced schizophrenic rearing behavior in mice, decreased the resting level of plasma corticosterone and also the ratio of kynurenine into tryptophan.
15) Lung Injury
B. longum treatment significantly improved lung injury after disease and sepsis in mice. This probiotic also diminished lung inflammatory responses.
16) Bone Density
B. longum supplementation relieved bone loss and increased bone formation parameters and bone mass density in ovariectomized rats.
Dietary B. longum Significantly inhibited liver and colon and small intestinal tumors in rats. In female rats, dietary supplementation also suppressed mammary carcinogenesis.
B. longum inhibits colorectal tumors in mice and rats.
Freeze-dried cultures of B. longum significantly suppressed colon cancer incidence and tumor multiplicity and additionally reduced tumor volume in rats.
Mechanisms of Impact
Various studies have investigated B. longum’s influence on the cellular level. These may or may not reflect the mechanisms of B. longum Probiotics in the human bodynonetheless, they can help account for some of the observed effects of these probiotics in human studies.
Under inflammatory conditions, B. longum:
- Reduced Th1-related cytokines (T-bet, IL-2, and IFN-γ) and Th17-related cytokines (IL-12p40, RORγt, IL-17A, IL-21, and IL-23), also raises Treg-related molecules (Foxp3, IL-10, and TGF-β).
- Decreased IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-18.
- Decreased TNF-α saying.
- Improved IL-27.
- Decreased CD80 and CD40, CXCL1, CRP , iNOS and antimicrobial peptides Reg3b and Reg3g.
In infectious ailments, B. longum:
Increased natural killer (NK) cell activity.
Increased serum IgA and diminished IgG2a productions.
Increased IL-2, IL-12, and IL-18.
Reduced IL-6 [9, 10] and IL-8.
Both improved and decreased IL-10 also diminished and increased IFN-γ.
In allergic conditions, B. longum:
- Reduced IgE and improves the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio.
- Increased IgA.
- Increased Th1 cytokine and diminished Th2 cytokine generation.
- Reduced IL-4 and IL-5.
- Increased IL-10, IL-12 [76, 76] and TGF-β.
- Increased or decreased IFN-γ.
- Suppressed MDC and TARC.
- Increased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells.
In celiac disease, B. longum:
- Decreased TNF-α.
- Improved NFκB.
- Increased IL-10.
- Decreased CD3⁺ T, CD4+ and CD4+/Foxp3+ cells and enhanced CD8+ T.
- Increased MIP-1β.
B. longum Is deemed safe but should be avoided in immunocompromised Individuals, individuals with organ failure, and dysfunctional gut barrier, Where probiotics may cause infection. To avoid adverse effects, speak to your doctor about whether probiotics could be suitable for you.